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Original Article
57 (
1
); 1-12

A Study on Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality type of Indian Miliary Pilots: A Preliminary study

Research Assistant, Psychologist, Department of Space and Environmental Physiology, IAM IAF Bangalore - 560017
Chief Research Officer, IAM IAF Bangalore
Senior Medical Officer, IAM IAF Bangalore
Scientist ‘D’, Psychologist IAM IAF Bangalore

Abstract

Pilots today are challenged to fly in the new, advanced and most powerful vehicles that this civilization has produced. The demands for excellence in piloting skills, physical health and psychological adaptability have become even more stringent. The emotional expression for survival and adaptation to flying career is very crucial. The aim of this preliminary investigation was to identify the nature of Trait Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the Personality type in sixty (60) trained Indian military pilots and to ascertain association between trait emotional intelligence and personality. The EI was measured by Trait EI Questionnaire (shod: form), consisting of four scales: Well-being, Self-control, Emotionality and Sociability. Personality was measured using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The results of the study indicate that the aviators perceive themselves to have above average level of trait emotional intelligence. The association between personality and trait emotional intelligence yields a significant relationship between the Personality type and Trait EI. It is evident from current study that emotional intelligence is an important indicator for the effective interpersonal functioning of aircrew and to understand its relationship towards the positive workplace performance. Therefore it can be considered in selection process of the individuals who are aspiring to become pilots in both fixed wing and rotary wing of Indian Air force, which will help to predict occupational performance. Further the performance of the aviators is likely to be enhanced by employing suitable training programs for emotional intelligence.

Keywords

Trait Emotional Intelligence
Personality type

Introduction

Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate in thought, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion in the self and others [1]. The definition emphasizes on four major areas of skills pertaining to accuracy in (a) perceiving emotions, (b) using emotions to facilitate thought, (c) understanding emotions and (d) managing emotions in a way that enhances personal growth and social relations. It is the ability to identify accurately and understand one’s own emotional reactions and those of others. It also involves the ability to regulate one’s emotions to use them to make good decisions and to act effectively [2]. Over the past 15 years, the Emotional Intelligence (EI) has received considerable attention within scientific research. EI is viewed as a predictor of success in the workplace through its significant association with transformational leadership, ability to foster workgroup cohesiveness, strengthen commitment to the organization and permit self-esteem [3].The application of emotional intelligence in the organization includes the areas like personnel selection, development of employees and teams. The organizations must coach their employees in developing their interpersonal skills and coach them to perform effectively on the job with other employees in the organization [4].

Research suggest that people with high levels of EI experience more career success, feel less job insecurity and lead more effectively [5] are more adaptable to stressful events [6] are more effective in team leadership and team performance [7] are more adaptable to organizational changes [8]. In the mid-1990's, the US Air Force (USAF) was losing half of its aspirants every year. A study [9] was conducted to examine the relationship between EI and occupational performance in the workplace between successful and unsuccessful US Air Force aspirants. This study concluded that there is a moderately high relationship between EI and occupational performance among USAF recruiters. The trainees who scored higher flexibility, optimism, self-regard, happiness and reality testing were two to three times more likely to successfully complete the program [9]. After one year, the USAF increased its ability to predict successful recruiters and reduced financial losses by approximately 92%. Based on those results, the US Government Accountability Office submitted a Congressional Report to the Senate Committee on Armed Services praising the USAF’s use of EI screening and recommended its continued use not only in the USAF but throughout the US Armed Services [10]. In 2007, extensive research was done in USAF to explore the potential application of Bar-on EQI to predict performance in Para Rescue Jumpers (PJ) who has best chance of completing highly specialized military course successfully [11]. The study demonstrated that EI has a significant impact on performance among PJ trainees and is capable of predicting who will successfully complete the course.

Trait EI model

Petrides et al [12] proposed a trait emotional intelligence model. According to the model, the trait emotional intelligence is “a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality”. The trail EI refers to an individual’s self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self-perceived abilities and is measured by self-report as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. Trait EI is investigated within a personality framework. In order to reduce the misconception in understanding EI Petrides and Furnham [13] proposed a theoretical distinction between trait EI and ability EI. The trait EI encompasses of emotion related behavioral dispositions and self-perceived abilities measured by self-report, whereas the ability EI composed of actual emotion-related cognitive abilities and it is measured by performance tests.

EI is a part of human personality and personality provides the context in which emotional intelligence operates. Personality is defined as ‘‘that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation, Personality traits are mechanisms within the individual that shape how he/she reacts to classes of events and occasion”[14]. The assessment of personality dates back to World War I, when there was a demand for a continuous stream of new pilots and effective methods for selecting pilot candidates [15].

A study [16] was done by O’Connor to examine the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a Predictor of Successful Academic and Military Performance at the United States Coast Guard Academy. Emphasis has placed on the cadets’ academic achievements, their military performance and their resignation status to determine whether the MBTI preferences could be used to predict success in these areas. It was hypothesized that individuals with Introversion (I), Intuition (N), Thinking (T), and Judgment (J) MBTI preferences are more suitable for academic and military success in U.S. Coast Guard Academy than are individuals with other combinations of type preferences. It is also found that low academic success at the Academy will adversely affect a cadet’s military performance, which in turn could lead to resignation. The results of this study do indicate that there is a significant correlation among personality preferences, academic success, and military performance as well as significant correlations between academic success, successful military performance and persistence at the Academy.

Hodges J [17] studied personality preferences of flight crew members in a hospital-based helicopter emergency medical service using the MBTI. The result demonstrated that extraversion preferences predominated over introversion, and perceiving characteristics predominated over judging characteristics. The study was conducted in India to rind the “personality- profile of a highly rated IAF pilot” showed that pilots have “above average in abstract thinking and high in stress tolerance, resilient, decisive, practical, sober and dependable”. Further in comparison of fighter and transport pilots, no statistical difference was found between the two groups [18].

The MBTI is made up of four separate bipolar dimensions each comprising two mutually exclusive preferences. Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I) in one dimension, Sensing(S) and Intuition (I) on second dimension, Thinking (T) and Feeling (F) in third dimension and Perception (P) and Judging (J) in the fourth dimension. The main objective of the MBTI is to identify the four basic preferences that reflect the individual’s habitual choice between alternatives on each of the four dimensions. [19].

As outlined by Myers and McCaulley [20] type theory indicates that Peoples, who are inclined towards extraversion, would like to focus on the outer world of people and activity. They direct energy from interacting with people and from taking action. People who are inclined towards introversion would focus on their own inner world of ideas and experiences. They direct their energy and attention inward and receive energy form reflecting on their thoughts, memories and feelings. People who prefer sensing will take m information that is real and tangible. They are the observant about the specifics of what is going around them. People who adapt intuition will take information by seeing the big picture, focusing on the relationships and connections between the facts. People who prefer to use thinking in decision making like to look at the logical consequences of a choice or action. People who prefer to use feeling in decision making like to consider what is important for them and to others. People who prefer to use their Judging process in the outer world like to live in a planned, orderly way, seeking to regulate and manage their lives. People who prefer to use their Perceiving process in the outer world like to live in a flexible, spontaneous way, seeking to experience and understand life, rather than control it [20].

Research has shown that personality type plays a role in a person’s preferred leaning and teaching style. A summary of type-related learning and teaching characteristics is provided in table 1 and is adapted from material presented by Lawrence [20] and Myers [21]. Personality type also plays an important role in people’s career choices.

Table 1:: MBTI type-related learning and teaching characteristics
Extroversion Introversion
Learning Styles
  • Enjoy group activities

  • Energized by people and environment

  • Prefer a variety of tasks at the same time

  • Spontaneous

  • Tend to be action oriented

  • Impatient to actively engage in a project

  • Enjoy individual or one-on-one activities

  • Energized by ideas

  • Prefer concentrating on a few tasks at one time

  • Think before discussing or deciding

  • Tend to observe and reflect

  • Must understand a project before attempting it

Teaching Styles
  • Learning activities based on student input

  • Attuned to attention levels of students

  • Prefer movement and noise in classroom

  • Structured learning activities

  • Attuned to topic being taught

  • Prefer quiet and orderly classrooms

Sensing Intuition
Learning Styles
  • Like assignments with precise directions

  • Want material presented step-by-step

  • Focused in the present

  • Prefer sensual, application orientation

  • Enjoy routine assignments and exercises

  • Value experience and improving skills

  • Like assignments emphasizing creativity

  • Want variety in the way material is presented

  • Focused in the future

  • Prefer principle and theory orientation

  • Enjoy variety in assignments and exercises

  • Value new ideas and learning new skills

Thinking Feeling
Learning Styles
  • Value individual achievement

  • Task oriented

  • Need principles, ideas, and facts

  • Find technology-oriented topics interesting

  • Enjoy demonstrating competence

  • Value group achievement

  • People oriented

  • Need to know how people will be affected

  • Find people-related topics interesting

  • Enjoy pleasing people

Teaching Styles
  • Make few evaluative comments

  • Use objective standards

  • Prefer to attend to the class as a whole

  • Regularly provide evaluative comments

  • Use objective and subjective standards

  • Prefer to attend to individual students

Judging Perceiving
Learning Styles
  • Prefer clearly-defined directions

  • Enjoy the completion (results) of a project

  • Need structure and predictability

  • Organized and systematic

  • Complete assignments well in advance

  • Like to work on projects one at a time

  • Prefer freedom and choices

  • Enjoy the project activity more than the result

  • Cope well with the unplanned and unexpected

  • Spontaneous

  • Complete assignments with a last-minute flurry

  • Like to work on several projects simultaneously

Teaching Styles
  • Prefer to set and adhere to fixed schedules

  • Prefer quiet and orderly classrooms

  • Class oriented and guided discussion

  • Prefer flexible schedules with student input

  • Encourage movement and socializing in groups

  • Promote independent and open-ended discussion

  1. Assess the level of trait emotional intelligence and personality type among trained Indian Military Pilots.

  2. To determine the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and personality type.

Material & Methods

Participants

A group of 60 pilots partic oatec voluntarily in this study from May 10 to Aug 10 at LAM, XAF Bangalore. The demographic characteristics of the group are listed below in Tables 2 and 3 respectively.

Table 2:: Average mean values of the demographic characteristics of the group (N=60)
Characteristic Mean SD
Age 29.82 6.31
Service in years 8 6.42
Table 3:: Sample Distribution of the flying hours (N=60)
Flying Hours Mean SD
>500 161.36 116.37
>1000 727.21 145.38
>2000 2928 270.50
>3000 4722.5 543.45
Figure 1:: Four personality dimensions or dichotomies.
Figure 2:: Illustrates the Sample distribution of the types of aircraft flown (N=60)
Figure 3:: Illustrates the Sample distribution of the officer ranks (N=60)

Measures

(a) MBTI is developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers [15]. It consists of 93 items; this test yields four personality dimensions or dichotomies: (1) Introversion/ Extraversion (2) Perceiving/Judging (3) Sensing/Intuition (4) Thinking/Feeling. These dichotomies are based on Dynamic Theory of personality. The MBTI has been described and validated through almost 40 years of research [19] and has been acceptable by researchers throughout the world. Split half reliability coefficients computed on continuous scores run between 0.80 and 0.92 across all four dimensions for groups aged 15 through 60 plus years [18]. Test-retest reliability coefficients have been estimated based on the percent of agreement between personality type profiles over time intervals from 5 weeks to 6 years. The test-retest coefficients run from 0.69 to 0.92 across all personality type profiles [22].

(b) Trail EI Short Form (Trait EI-SF) is developed by Petrides and Furnham [23]. This test consists of 30-items. The items were responded on 7 - point Likert scale. It is organised under four-factors: well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability ranging from 1 = Completely Disagree to 7 = Completely Agree. Well-being is a generalized sense of well-being, extending from past achievements to future expectations. Self-control is a degree of control over their urges and desires. Emotionality is the ability to perceive and express emotions to develop and sustain close relationship with others. Sociability emphasizes on the ability of good listening skills and builds social relationships confidently with people with diverse backgrounds. The internal consistencies at the factor level are excellent, varying between .86 and .94. The Cronbach’s alpha for the Trait EI—SF is 0.85.

Procedure

A good rapport was established with aviators, informed consent was obtained and then the respondents were given two self-report questionnaires along with the demographic inventory and asked to mark their opinion on the response sheet. The subjects were briefly explained about the need and purpose of the study and subjects are assured of confidentiality. On Trait EI-SF, the subject were told to indicate how much they agreed or disagreed with the statement on a seven point Likert scale form “completely agree”, “disagree", “slightly disagree”, “neutral”, “slightly agree”, “agree” and “strongly agree” to ‘completely disagree’ and mark the point in the scale. On M BTI the subjects were required to indicate making an “X” in the appropriate box next to the response. Administering the entire test took 20 - 30 minutes approximately.

The questionnaires were then hand scored. The scores on each of the four sub scales of Trait EI-SF were computed using the scoring key provided. The scores on M BTI were computed by adding up the responses on each statement. Total score measures the preferences on four dichotomies: Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition Thinking-Feeling, and Judging-Perceiving [14]. The preference with the higher number of points determines the personality type on each dichotomy.

Data of the twelve variables for sixty subjects were entered in to the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software for data analysis. The descriptive statistics were drawn for the group on all these variables. In the presence of multicollinearity among the Dependent Variables, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) will be more powerful than the separate univariate tests, hence multivariate analysis was drawn to seeis to determine whether multiple levels of independent variables on their own or in combination with one another have an effect on the dependent variables. Demographic characteristics such as age, service in years, rank, flying hours and type of aircraft flown were also subjected to correlation with Trait EI.

Results

The descriptive statistics of the group on Trait EI and personality variables are depicted in the following tables 4 and 5.

Table 4:: Descriptive statistics of the group on Trait El (N=60)
Variable Min Max Mean SD
Well-being 24 42 35.3 4.43
Self-control 17 42 30.7 5.36
Emotionality 25 56 42.6 5.99
Sociability 13 42 29.8 5.32
Table 5:: Descriptive statistics of the group on Personality type (N=60)
Variable Min Max Mean SD Percentage
(%)
Extraversion 1 22 13.4 5.14 71.6
Introversion 0 20 7.5 5.2 28.3
Sensing 3 24 15 5.2 68.3
Intuhion 1 23 11 5.36 31.6
Thinking 2 24 16.1 5.48 78.3
Feeling 0 22 7.9 5.51 21.6
Judging 0 22 15 5.1 78.3
Perceiving 0 22 6.8 5.21 21.6

The descriptive data in the above table shows that aviators in group have above average Trait EI, the number of respondents scoring above average in Trait EI were 76.6% and respondents scoring average trait EI were 23.3%. On personality type, under four dichotomies: Extraversion and Introversion, Sensing and Intuition, Thinking and Feeling as well as Judging and Perceiving. The data shows that 71.6% of the group has predominated in extraversion preferences over introversion, 68.3% of the group has predominated in sensing preferences over intuition, 78.3% of the group has predominated in thinking preferences over feeling and 78.3% of the group has predominated judging preference over perceiving respectively.

We used MANOVA to examine associations between the factors of Trait EI and Personality types. The dependent variables are the four factors of Trait EI and the independent variables are the four separate bipolar dimensions of personality types. The above table shows the main effects of the independent variables and the interactions. The main effects of Trait EI factors were observed on the personality types, it was observed that Well-being and Self-Control has a main effect on the first bipolar dimension comprising two mutually exclusive preferences Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I). Where as Emotionality has an main effect on the second bipolar dimension comprising of Sensing (S) and Intuition (I), further in third bipolar dimension Thinking (T) and Feeling (F), the main effect is observed by Self-Control and Sociability. In the last and fourth bipolar dimension comprising of Judgment (J) and Perceiving (P), the main effect is observed by Self-Control.

There were significant two way, three way and four way interactions were observed on bipolar dimensions of the personality types and Trait EI factors. The two way interaction of trait EI factor comprising of emotionality and sociability were observed on the second bipolar dimension comprising of Sensing (S) and Intuition (I), which indicates that emotionality and sociability of the individual contributes towards how we prefer to perceive or take in information. The four way interaction of all Trait EI factors were observed in third bipolar dimension comprising of Thinking (T) and Feeling (F) indicating that the well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability have significant influence in the decision making process of the individual and the three way interaction of Trait EI factors including, emotionality and sociability on fourth bipolar dimension comprising of Perceiving (P) and Judgment (J) indicates that self-control, emotionality and sociability are affecting the perception towards approach to life.

The above the 3D scatter plot shows the two way interaction of trait EI factors emotionality and sociability on Intuition (I) and Sensing (S), the four way interaction of all Trait EI factors on Thinking (T) and Feeling (F), it is evident from the above graph that three factor interaction also observed between the Trait EI factors including self-control, emotionality and sociability on Perceiving (P) and Judgement (J).

Discussion

This study investigates the relationship between Trait EI and Personality type. The objectives of the study are twofold (a) to assess the level of trait emotional intelligence and personality type among trained Indian Military Pilots; (b) To determine the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and personality type.

The descriptive scores on the factors of trait EI indicate that pilots have above average well-being which means that they have a positive attitude about themselves and their achievements. They are confident, positive and they feel good about themselves. This is in line with a study at IAM [15] which reported that pilots perceive themselves to be positive and lead fulfilling lives with average psychological well-being. The results also describe that pilots have obtained above average in emotionality factor indicating that they can perceive and express emotions and use abilities to develop and sustain close relationships.

Table 6:: Showing the results Multivariate Analysis of Variance for the response variable.
Source Dependent Variable Bf SS MS F value Sig
Extraversion Well-being (W) 1 85.75 85.751 3.6558 0.0624 .
Self- Control (SC) 1 188.3 188.295 8.0275 0.006928 **
Residuals 44 1032.08 23.456
In reversion Well-being (W) 1 107.55 107.551 4.5798 0.037934 *
Self-Control (SC) 1 187.75 187.75 7.9949 0.007034 * *
Residuals 44 1033.29 23.484
Sensing Emotionality (E) 1 90.88 90.882 3.4021 0.07185 .
Sociability(S) 1 1.44 1.435 0.0537 0.81776
(W)*(S) 1 91.76 91.764 3.4351 0.07054 .
Residuals 44 1175.39 26.713
Intuition Emotionality (E) ] 101.58 101.576 3.6692 0.06194 .
(W)*(S) 1 111.67 111.667 4.0337 0.05076 .
Residuals 44 1218.07 27.683
Thinking Self-Control (SC) 1 233.08 233.076 9.5889 0.003402 **
Sociability(S) 1 103.4 103.399 4.2539 0.045094 *
(W)*(E)*(S) 1 119.04 119.041 4.8974 0.03213 *
(W)*(E)*(SC)*(S) 1 146.34 146.342 6.0206 0.018169 *
Residuals 44 1069.50 24.307
Feeling Self-Control (SC) 1 266.56 266.563 10.3876 0.002391 **
Sociability(S) 1 94.53 94.526 3.6836 0.061452 .
(W)*(E)*(S) 1 98.75 98.754 3.8483 0.056142 .
(W)*(E)*(SC)*(S) 1 123.75 123.749 4.8224 0.033409 *
Residuals 44 1129.11 25.662
Judgement Self-Control (SC) 1 150.9 150.898 7.1171 0.01065 *
Emotionality(E) 1 60.49 60.487 2.8529 0.09829 .
(W)*(SC) 1 61.38 61.377 2.8948 0.09592 .
(SC)*(S) 1 62.77 62.768 2.9604 0.09235 .
(SC)*(E)*(S) 1 123.47 123.469 5.8234 0.02005 *
Residuals 44 932.90 21.202
Perceiving Self-Control (SC) 1 135.63 135.633 6.7707 0.01258 *
(W)*(SC) 1 83.57 83.572 4.1719 0.04712 *
(SC)*(S) 1 86.64 86.635 4.3248 0.04342 *
(W)*(E)*(SC) 1 67 66.996 3.3444 0.07422 .
(SC)*(E)*(S) 1 122.08 122.084 6.0944 0.01752 *
Residuals 44 881.42 20.032

Note - p< 0.001 ‘**’ p< 0.01 ‘*’9 p< 0.05

Figure 4:: Depicting the scatter 3D plot of bipolar dimensions of personality type and its interaction on Trait El factors.

Overall in the present sample, it appears that the preferences of the aviators on each of the four MBTI dichotomies, Extraversion (E) preferences were found to be predominant over Introversion (I), Sensing (S) preferences predominated over Intuition (I), Thinking (T) preferences predominated over Feeling (F) and Perceiving (P) characteristics predominated over Judging (J) characteristics. The results may indicate that aviators in group who have predominance in extraversion would like to focus on the outer world people and activity. They are sociable, expressive and they are ready to take initiative in work and relationships. Pilots who have predominance in sensing are observant, who focus on information that is real and actual. They prefer to understand the ideas and theories through practical application. Predominance in thinking indicates that group prefer to use cause and affect reasoning while solving a problem. They prefer to use their decision making ability to look at the logical consequence of a choice or action. Finally, me predominance in judging shows that they prefer to be structured, organized and methodological. They make short-term and long-term plans to organize their lives and prefer to have things settled by sticking to a plan and schedule. This is in accordance with the findings of the previous study [9] on personality preferences.

At the outset, a Full Model is chosen with all interaction variables (both three and four level interactions) is chosen. The partial effects are checked in ANOVA of this model. The four level interactions are found to be insignificant in Extraversion, Introversion, Sensing, Intuition, Judging and Perceiving. Hence they are dropped. There is a significant two way and three way interactions were observed between Trait EI and personality type. The results show that all the factors of Trait EI have a predictive effect on personality types.

The result that all the factors of Trait EI have a predictive effect on extraversion and introversion personality type concurs with the findings of the previous researchers [15]. This could be interpreted that pilots may have a wide range of emotion related skills, outgoing and sociable. Further it is observed that that Well-being and Self-Control has a main effect on the first bipolar dimension comprising two mutually exclusive preferences Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I), indicating that Well-being and Self-Control has an significant influence on the outer world people and activity. The aviators in group are sociable, expressive and they are ready to take initiative in work and relationships, which is line with the study conducted by Maria Vakola et al [8] on how emotional intelligence and the “Big Five” dimensions of personality can facilitate organisational change, which could be interpreted as employee, who is an extrovert, open to new experiences, agreeable and conscientious employee is “positive to organizational change”

The significant association between the self-control and thinking and Emotionality and judging indicates that aviators are good at regulating external pressure and stress, which is in accordance to the study done by MoriaM ikolajczak [16]. This could be interpreted that they have a healthy degree of control over stressful situations and they prefer to use cause and affect reasoning while dealing with a critical situation. The significant association between the Self-Control and extraversion as well as Sociability and thinking bring into light that subjects believe that they have good listening skills and communicate clearly and confidently with people, which is in accordance with the study on “personality profile of a highly rated IAF pilot” showed that pilots have above average in abstract thinking and high in stress tolerance, resilient, decisive, practical, sober and dependable [14], They may prefer to make decision by looking at the logical consequence of action. This is also in line with the personality studies [17] done on pilots using MMP which found pilots to be relatively high in sociability and are generally unanxious.

It is observed that among the group of aviators, decision making process (thinking and feeling) is affected by the four factors of Wait EI, this is in line with the study carried out by Picano [18]. This could be interpreted that aviators were outgoing and emphasized planning, logical analysis, and attention to detail. Further to find the association between demographic variables and trait EI correlations were drawn. It is found that there is no significant correlation observed between the age, service in years, rank, flying hours and type of aircraft flown with four Trait EI Factors.

The outcomes of this study may not be considered definitive because of the small sample size. Therefore a full length research may be undertaken with a bigger sample size constituting of two groups between aviators and non-aviators or successfully recruited aviators and dropouts. The importance of EI is an important contributing aspect to understand the positive workplace performance.

Conclusion

The emerging field of study on emotional intelligence has high importance in occupational performance. Trait Emotional intelligence has been found to be a predictor of personality type. EI can be learned, developed and improved. People with higher emotional intelligence skills are more able to nurture positive relationships, work effectively in teams and build social capital, which if found significant in this present study. This preliminary study aimed at identifying the level of Trait EI and personality type among trained Indian Military Pilots and to examine the association between Trait EI and Personality type. The assessment of Trait EI can be made an integral part of selection and screening process of candidates who are aspiring carrier in IAF. This will help IAF to recognise the potential aviators at the entry level and adopt suitable training programs on EI to improve occupational performance.

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